This FAQ / Troubleshooting guide is being deprecated. Please use the new Knowledge Base Articles for the most up to date references.

FAQ / Troubleshooting

The following section is designed to answer frequently asked questions and help troubleshoot Digital Rebar Provision installs.

Want ligher reading? Checkout our Fun Facts.

Where can I get the DRPCLI?

If you need the DRPCLI, follow instructions for Download DRPCLI.

Where can I learn more about Digital Rebar Security?

Please consult the dedicated Security Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).

Bind Error

Digital Rebar Provision will fail if it cannot attach to one of the required ports.

  • Typical Error Message: “listen udp4 :67: bind: address already in use”

  • Additional Information: The conflicted port will be included in the error between colons (e.g.: :67:)

  • Workaround: If the conflicting service is not required, simply disable that service

  • Resolution: Stop the offending service on the system. Typical corrective actions are:

    • 67 - dhcp. Correct with sudo pkill dnsmasq

See the port mapping list on start-up for a complete list.

TFTP Error

In the dr-provision logfiles you may occassionally see error messages relating to TFTP Aborted. These errors are (typically) benign and expected behavior. The TFTP protocol does not specify a mechanism to obtain the size of a file to transfer for calculating completed transfer; without first requesting the file. Digital Rebar Provision initiates the transfer request an then immediately aborts it. This obtains the file size for the next transfer to validate the file was served correctly.

Simply ignore these errors. If you receive these errors and you believe you should be provisioning correctly, check that you have correctly specified the default/unknown BootEnv, default Stage, and default Workflow are set correctly.

error messages may appear similarly to:

May 24 13:48:22 ubuntu dr-provision[7092]: dr-provision2018/05/24 20:48:22.006224 [280:13]static [error]: gitlab.com/rackn/provision-server/v4/midlayer/tftp.go:82
May 24 13:48:22 ubuntu dr-provision[7092]: [280:13]TFTP: lpxelinux.0: transfer error: sending block 0: code=0, error: TFTP Aborted

Generate Certificate

Sometimes the cert/key pair in the github tree is corrupt or not sufficient for the environment. The following command can be used to rebuild a local cert/key pair.

sudo openssl req -new -x509 -keyout server.key -out server.crt -days 365 -nodes

It may be necessary to install the openssl tools.

If you are running dr-provision v4.6 or later, you can then install the new server key and certificate on a running endpoint with:

drpcli system certs set server.crt server.key

The API will start using the new certificate and key for new requests, and if you are running an HA consensus cluster the certificate will be distributed to all nodes in the cluster.

If you are running dr-provision v4.7 or later, you can do the same for the HTTPS static file server using:

sudo openssl req -new -x509 -keyout static.key -out static.crt -days 365 -nodes
drpcli files certs set static.crt static.key

Add SSH Keys to Authorized Keys

VIDEO TUTORIAL: https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/StQql8Xn08c

NOTE: The UX offers a “Add Key” button on the top of the “Info & Preference” panel that will perform the following steps for you.

To have provisioned operating systems (including discovery/sledgehammer) add SSH keys, you should set the access-keys parameter with a hash of the desired keys. This Param should be applied to the Machines you wish to update, either directly via adding the Param to the Machines, or by adding the Param to a Profile that is subsequently added to the Machines. NOTE that the global Profile applies to all Machines, and you can add it to global should you desire to add the set of keys to ALL Machines being provisioned.

The below example adds User1 and User2 SSH keys to the profile my-profile. Change appropriately for your enviornment.

cat << END_KEYS > my-keys.json
  "Params": {
    "access-keys": {
      "user1": "ssh-rsa user_1_key user1@krib",
      "user2": "ssh-rsa user_2_key user2@krib"

drpcli profiles update my-profile keys.json

Example Docker Volume Usage

Digital Rebar Provision writes content in the Docker Container to the /provision/drp-data directory by default. Most DRP Endpoint provisioning systems will want to have persistent data across the container runtimes. For this, you need to add a Docker Volume. The below example shows you how to use the local Docker host as the backing store for the volume. You can also use any of the container based networked storage solutions to back your volume in.

  1. Create a volume for the container

export VOL="drp-data"

# create a Docker volume
docker volume create $VOL
  1. Let’s verify that the volume is currently empty

docker volume inspect $VOL | jq '.[].Mountpoint'
# outputs:
# "/docker/volumes/drp-data/_data"

# show the contents of the current (empty) volume
ls -la $(docker volume inspect $VOL | jq -r '.[].Mountpoint')
# total 0
# drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root  40 Aug 21 00:41 .
# dr-xr-x---. 1 root root 180 Aug 21 00:41 ..
  1. Launch DRP, using our newly created volume:

# now run DRP with our volume mapped to /provision/drp-data:
docker run --volume $VOL:/provision/drp-data --name drp -itd --net host digitalrebar/provision:stable
  1. Verify that DRP extracted the assets on the host in the mounted volume location:

# when DRP starts up, it extracts and builds the default assets
# in the writable backing store (directory structure):
ls $(docker volume inspect drp-data | jq -r '.[].Mountpoint')
# outputs:
# digitalrebar  job-logs  plugins  replace  saas-content  secrets  tftpboot  ux

Set SSH Root Mode

The Param access-ssh-root-mode defines the login policy for the root user. The default vaule is without-password which means the remote SSH root user must access must be performed with SSH keys (see Knowledge Base Article: kb-00006). Possible values are:




require SSH public keys for root login, no forced commands


allow SSH root user login with password


do not allow SSH root user login at all


only allow forced commands to run via remote login

What are the default passwords?

When using the community BootEnvs for installation, the password is set to a variant of RocketSkates. See Default Template Identity for complete details.

For all bootenvs (sledgehammer, centos, ubuntu, etc.) the default pattern does NOT allow login via Password. See Knowledge Base Article: kb-00006 for manaing SSH Authorized Keys login details.

We strongly recommend changing this default or, better, using SSH without-password options as per Knowledge Base Article: kb-00008 details.

A quick reference table for passwords:




drp endpoint auth






most bootenvs (*)



debian / ubuntu



cloud-init images

<varies> (*)


VMware ESXi



For more information


(*) “most bootenvs” and cloud-init images refers to CentOS, Ubuntu, CoreOS, ESXi, etc. Generally speaking, this is the default “installed” credentials. Note that each distro has it’s own rules about root versus installed default user accounts. DRP follows most vendors “patterns” with regards to root -vs- unprivileged user creation, with the username changed to “rocketskates”. Some vendor specific notes are below.

For debian / ubuntu bootenvs, the default user (rocketskates, can be changed by setting provisioner-default-user Param), has sudo privileges.

For Images with cloud-init pieces, there often is an injected centos user for CentOS, ubuntu for Ubuntu, etc. user. This is controlled by the cloud-init configurations of the image build process.

For more about VMware, see Managing Your ESXi Passwords

Using the .drpclirc File

If you need the DRPCLI, follow instructions for Download DRPCLI.

In addition to the environment variables (eg RS_ENDPOINT, RS_KEY, etc) and setting explicit drpcli values via option flags (eg --enpdoint, -E, etc), you can now use a home _RC_ style configuration file to set these values.

To do so, create a file $HOME/.drpclirc with the following possible values and format:




sets the endpoint API location (default:


sets username to auth to the Endpoint (default: “rocketskates”)


sets the password for the auth (default: “r0cketsk8ts”)


sets user:pass pair for authentication (default: “rocketskates:r0cketsk8ts”)


a precreated Token (which may have a specific use scope)


command line output format to use (json,yaml,text,table)


comma separate list of fields to show in output “table” or “text” format


remove the header fields from “table” or “text” format output


limits the length of fields displayed for “table” or “text” output formats


Please note that you can not use Shell style export in front of the variable, and do NOT surround the value with double or single quotes.


The RS_FORMAT, RS_PRINT_FIELDS, RS_NO_HEADER, and RS_TRUNCATE_LENGTH variables are only valid for drpcli v4.2.0-beta2.0 or newer versions.

Using Table/Text Output Formatters

As of v4.2.0-beta2.0, the drpcli client supports additional output formats of table and text type.

drpcli --format table ...
# or
drpcli --format text ...

These output formats can be configured by setting environment shell variables, or use of the .drpclirc (see: Knowledge Base Article: kb-00010) file for setting default usage.

The shell environment variables are as follows.




command line output format to use (json,yaml,text,table)


comma separate list of fields to show in output “table” or “text” format


remove the header fields from “table” or “text” format output


limits the length of fields displayed for “table” or “text” output formats

Examples of setting environment variables:
export RS_FORMAT=table
export RS_PRINT_FIELDS=Name,Uuid,Workflow,Stage,BootEnv
export RS_NO_HEADER=true
Examples of drpcli usage:
drpcli subnets list --format table
drpcli machines list --format table --print-fields Name,Uuid,Workflow,Stage,BootEnv --no-header
drpcli machines list --format table --print-fields Name,Uuid,Workflow,Stage,BootEnv
drpcli profiles list --format table --truncate-length 30
drpcli machines params Name:jane --format=table --truncate-length=120
drpcli extended -l endpoints list --format table --truncate-length 30


The CLI has a dedicated FAQ section. Please see CLI Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).

Topics include:

Turn Up the Debug

To get additional debug from dr-provision, set debug preferences to increase the logging. See Prefs.

Missing VBoxNet Network

Virtual Box does not add host only networks until a VM is attempting to use them. If you are using the interfaces API (or UX wizard) to find available networks and vboxnet0 does not appear then start your VM and recreate the address.

Virtual Box may also fail to allocate an IP to the host network due to incomplete configuration. In this case, ip addr will show the network but no IPv4 address has been allocated; consequently, Digital Rebar will not report this as a working interface.

VirtualBox “no bootable medium” on second boot

VirtualBox PXE firmware does not handle PXE chaining effectively. This happens because DRP treats known and unknown machines differently so the first boot gets more different boot instructions.

The workaround is to use DHCP option 67 to supply the correct boot file. Setting DHCP option 67 to lpxelinux.0 bypasses the chainloader after the machine has registered.

See also Knowledge Base Article: kb-00028

Debug Sledgehammer

If the sledgehammer discovery image should fail to launch Runner jobs successfully, or other issues arise with the start up sequences, you can debug start up via the systemd logging. Log in to the console of the Machine in question (or if SSH is running and you have access-keys setup, you can SSH in), and run the following command to output logging:
journalctl -u sledgehammer

Convert Isolated Install to Production Mode

There currently is no officually supported migration tool to move from an Isolated to Production install mode. However, any existing customizations, Machines, Leases, Reservations, Contents, etc. can be moved over from the Isolated install directory structure to a Production install directory, and you should be able to retain your Isolated mode environment.

All customized content is stored in subdirectories as follows:

Isolated: in drp-data/ in the Current Working Directory the installation was performed in Production: in /var/lib/dr-provision

The contents and structure of these locations is the same. Follow the below procedure to safely move from Isolated to Production mode.

  1. backup your current drp-data directory (eg tar -czvf /root/drp-isolated-backup.tgz drp-data/)

  2. pkill dr-provision service

  3. perform fresh install on same host, without the --isolated flag

  4. follow the start up scripts setup - BUT do NOT start the dr-provision service at this point

  5. copy the drp-data/* directories recursively to /var/lib/dr-provision (eg: unalias cp; cp -ra drp-data/* /var/lib/dr-provision/)

  6. make sure your startup scripts are in place for your production mode (eg: /etc/systemd/system/dr-provision.service)

  7. start the new production version with systemctl start dr-provision.service

  8. verify everything is running fine

  9. delete the drp-data directory (suggest retaining the backup copy for later just in case)


WARNING: If you install a new version of the Digital Rebar Provision service, you must verify that there are no Contents differences between the two versions. Should the dr-provision service fail to start up; it’s entirely likely that there may be some content changes that need to be addressed in the JSON/YAML files prior to the new version being started. See the Upgrade and Downgrade DRP notes for any version-to-version specific documentation.

Customize Production Mode

You can use systemd drop configuration to alter dr-provision start up options.

To use, figure out the environment variable to set by checking the help of dr-provision. e.g. dr-provision -h

You will need to create the drop-in directory if it doesn’t exist.

  • mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/dr-provision.service.d

Then you will need to create a drop-in service file. For example, to name your system, you would use this file, drpid.conf:


Then reload and restart the service.

  • sudo systemctl daemon-reload && sudo systemctl restart dr-provision

This will work with multiple files and multiple variables.

Custom Kickstart and Preseeds

Starting with drp-community-content version 1.5.0 and newer, you can now define a custom Kickstart or Preseed (aka kickseed) to override the defaults in the selected BootEnv. You simply need to only define a single Param (select-kickseed) with the name of the Kickstart or Preseed you wish to override the default value.
export UUID="f6ca7bb6-d74f-4bc1-8544-f3df500fb15e"
drpcli machines set $UUID param select-kickseed to "my_kickstart.cfg"

Of course, you can apply a Param to a Profile, and apply that Profile to a group of Machines if desired.


The Digital Rebar default kickstart and preseeds have Digital Rebar specific interactions that may be necessary to replicate. Please review the default kickstart and preseeds for patterns and examples you may need to re-use. We HIGHLY recommend you start with a clone operation of an existing Kickstart/Preseed file; and making appropriate modifications from that as a baseline.

Can I eliminate reboots with kexec?

Yes. Setting the kexec-ok param to true on the global or machine specific profile allows BootEnvs that are kexec enabled to skip rebooting when changing to that BootEnv. For example, Sledgehammer enables kexec and can be started without a reboot from Linux environments.

This is a Linux specific feature. For more about kexec: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Kexec

Import plugin failed pool: define failed

If you are using the DRPCLI to upload a licensed RackN plugin, the endpoint will reject the upload with a defined failed error.

Install the license content pack and try again. If you’ve saved the rackn-license.json file then you can use the DRPCLI to upload it via drpcli contents upload rackn-license.json.

Update Community Content via Command Line

Here’s a brief example of how to upgrade the Community Content installed in a DRP Endpoint using the command line. See Download Content and Plugins via Command Line for additional steps with RackN content.

Perform the following steps to obtain new content.

View our currently installed Content version:
$ drpcli contents show drp-community-content | jq .meta.Version
Get and upload our new version (in this example, explicitly set version to v1.5.0. However, you may also specify stable, or tip, and do not require specific version numbers for those.
drpcli contents upload catalog:drp-community-content-v1.5.0

drpcli catalog item install drp-community-content –version v1.5.0

Now verify that our installed content matches the new vesion we expected …
$ drpcli contents show drp-community-content | jq .meta.Version
Next check if sledgehammer needs to be updated
drpcli bootenvs uploadiso sledgehammer
This command will update the sledgehammer isos if required. If your output from the above command is
BootEnv sledgehammer already has all required ISO files

Then your sledgehammer is all up to date.

Rebooting inside a Tasks, Stages and Workflows

The Runner Task execution system supports many ways to cause a system reboot that allow for the task being marked as either complete or incomplete (so it can resume). This can be very important for tasks that require a reboot mid-task.

These options are handled by using script helpers or sending specialized exit codes. Please see Reboot! Using Agent State Changes in Scripts for comprehensive documentation.

Rebooting without IPMI plugins (without a Task)

The Runner will automatically reboot the system if the BootEnv changes during a Workflow. You can force this behavior by changing the BootEnv to local on the machine manually then starting a Workflow with a different BootEnv like discover. This will cause the runner to reboot the machine.

  1. Clear the Machine Workflow

  2. Set the Machine BootEnv to local

  3. Update

  4. Set the Workflow to a workflow with a different BootEnv.

  5. Update and watch machine reboot

Nested Templates (or “Sub-templates”)

The Golang templating language does not provide a call-out to include another template. However, at RackN, we’ve added the ability to include nested templates (sometimes referred to as sub-templates). In any content piece that is valid to use the templating capabilities, simply use the following Template construct to refer to another template. The template referred to will be expanded inline in the calling template. The nested template example below calls the template named (oddly enough) nested. tmpl.
{{template "nested.tmpl" .}}

# or alternatively:

{{$templateName := (printf "part-seed-%s.tmpl" (.Param "part-scheme")) -}}
{{.CallTemplate $templateName .}}

The template construct is a text string that refers to a given template name which exists already.

The CallTemplate construct can be a variable or expression that evaluates to a string.

How Can I manipulate values during Golang Template rendering?

The Digital Rebar Provision integrates most of the Sprig Function Library in the Golang Template rendering operations. That means that you may include their string, math and flow functions into your pipelines.

For example: {{.Param “noCamelCase/hashiCorp” | snakecase }} or {{.Param “cool/tech” | regexMatch “([DRP]*)”}}

Please consult the Sprig website for a full list of functions.

Note: Digital Rebar Provision blocks functions that could be used to operate on the endpoint outside of DRP template rendering for security reasons.

How Can I render Double Curly Braces {{ and }} during Golang Template rendering?

Moved to kb-00025: How Can I render Double Curly Braces {{ and }} during Golang Template rendering?

Change a Machines Name

If you wish to update/change a Machine Name, you can do:
export UUID="abcd-efgh-ijkl-mnop-qrst"
drpcli machines update $UUID '{ "Name": "foobar" }'


Note that you can NOT use the drpcli machines set ... construct as it only sets Param values. The Machines name is a Field, not a Parameter. This will NOT work: drpcli machines set $UUID param Name to foobar.

Set hostname in a DHCP Reservation

If you create a DHCP Reservation for a system (or convert an active Lease to Reservation), you can also set the Hostname for the Machine. If you are pre-creating Reservations, this will allow you to have a pre-set hostname when the Machine first comes up. Additionally, if you create/destroy your machine objects, but would like a hostname to persist with the Machine Reservation when the machine returns, you can do this.


The UX version (at least as of v1.2.1 and older) does not support setting DHCP options to the Reservation. You will have to perform these actions using either the CLI or API. The CLI method is outlined below.

This procedure assumes you have a Reservation created already, and we are going to update the existing Reservation. You can combine this procedure with creating a new Reservation, but only if you perform the operation via the CLI or API.

# show the current Reservation:
drpcli reservations show

# create a Hostname specification in the DHCP Options section of the reservation:
drpcli reservations update '{ "Options": [ { "Code": 12, "Value": "pxe-client-8-100" } ] }'

In the above exmaple, we are assuming our DHCP Reservation is for a Reservation identified by the IP Address, and that we are setting the hostname (DHCP Option 12) to pxe-client-8-100.

UEFI Boot Support - Option 67

Starting with v3.7.1 and newer, a DHCP Subnet specification will try to automatically determine the correct values for the next-server and DHCP Option 67 values. In most cases, you shouldn’t need to change this or set these fields. Older versions of DRP may need the next-boot and/or the DHCP Option 67 values set to work correctly. This is especially true of Virtualbox environments prior to v3.7.1. You will need to force the DHCP Option 67 to lpxelinux.0.

The DHCP service in Digital Rebar Provision can support fairly complex boot file service. You can use advanced logic to ensure you send the right PXE boot file to a client, based on Legacy BIOS boot mode, or UEFI boot mode. Note that UEFI boot mode can vary dramatically in implementations, and some (sadly; extensive) testing may be necessary to get it to work for your system. We have several reports of field deployments with various UEFI implementations working with the new v3.7.0 and newer “magic” Option 67 values.

Here is an example of an advanced Option 67 parameter for a DHCP Subnet specification:

{{if (eq (index . 77) "iPXE") }}default.ipxe{{else if (eq (index . 93) "0")}}ipxe.pxe{{else}}ipxe.efi{{end}}

If you run in to issues with UEFI boot support - please do NOT hesitate to contact us on the Slack Channel as we may have updated info to help you with UEFI boot support.

An example of adding this to your Subnet specification might look something like:
# assumes your subnet name is "eth1" - change it to match your Subnet name:
# you may need to delete the existing value if there is one, first, by doing:
# drpcli subnets set eth1 option 67 to null # The setting to null is not needed with v3.7.1 and beyond.
drpcli subnets set eth1 option 67 to '{{if (eq (index . 77) "iPXE") }}default.ipxe{{else if (eq (index . 93) "0")}}ipxe.pxe{{else}}ipxe.efi{{end}}'


You should not have to add option 67 unless you are meeting a specific need. Test without it first!

lpxelinux.0 error: no such file or directory

After TFTPing lpxelinux.0, logs (or network packet traces) may show an error similar to:
477    0.378296662    TFTP    159    Error Code, Code:
File not found, Message: open /var/lib/dr-provision/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/16089a59-9abd-48c2-850a-2ac3bc134935: no such file or directory``

This is expected behavior that is standard PXE waterfall searching for a valid filename to boot from. For full reference, please see the syslinux reference documentation, at:

The expected behavior is for a client to attempt to download files in the following order:

  1. client id (DRP does not use this option, which is what generates the error)

  2. mac address (in the form of 01-88-99-aa-bb-cc-dd)

  3. ip address in uppercase Hexadecimal format, stepping through IP, subnet, and classful boundaries

  4. fall back to the default defined file

Due to this behavior, filenames will be specified that do not exist, and the error message related to that probe request is a normal message. This is NOT an indicator that provisioning is broken in your environment.

Change Pxelinux Versions

DRP ships with two versions of PXELinux, 6.03 and 3.86. The default operation is to use 6.03 as lpxelinux.0 with all the supporting files present in the tftpboot root directory. This does not always work for all environments. It is sometimes useful to change this. In general, DRP attempts to serve iPXE based bootloaders through the default DHCP operations. Again, this is not always possible.

The 3.86 version is a single file shipped as esxi.0.

There are couple of ways to change the operation.

First, the file, esxi.0, can be used by changing the bootfile option in DHCP server. For DRP, this can be at the subnet or reservation level.

Second, the lpxelinux.0 file can be replaced. To do this safely, a couple of steps need to be done.

  1. In the tftpboot directory, copy lpxelinux.0 to lpxelinux.0.bak.

  2. In the replace direcotry, copy esxi.0 to lpxelinux.0. The replace directory is usually a peer to the tftpboot directory.

  3. In the tftpboot directory, copy esxi.0 to lpxelinux.0.

The middle step keeps DRP from overwriting your changes on startup.

Render a Kickstart or Preseed

Kickstart and Preseed files only created by request and are not stored on a filesystem that is viewable. They are dynamically generated on the fly, and served from the virtual Filesystem space of the Digital Rebar HTTP server (on port 8091 by default). However, it is possible to render a kickstart or preseed to evaluate how it is going to operate, or troubleshoot issues with your config files.

When a machine is in provisioning status, you can view the dynamically generated preseed or kickstart from the TFTP server (or via the HTTP gateway). Provisioning status means the Machine has been placed into an installable BootEnv via a Stage. If (for exaxmple) placed in to centos-8-install Stage, the compute.ks can be rendered for the machine. Or, if placed in to ubuntu-18.04-install Stage, the seed can be rendered for the machine.

Get the Machine ID, then use the following constructed URL:
TYPE="seed"   # seed for ubuntu, or compute.ks for centos


Example URLs:


A simple trick … you can create a non-existent Machine, and place that machine in different BootEnvs to render provisioning files for testing purposes. For example, put the non-existent Machine in the centos-8-install Stage, then render the compute.ks kickstart URL above.

. _rs_render_does_not_explode_iso:

BootEnv Does Not “Explode ISO” after upload

Problem: New or cloned BootEnv does not explode the uploaded ISO components in Digital Rebar after upload.

Possible Causes:

1. Uploaded ISOs must match shasums in the BootEnv 1. Install BootEnvs must end in -install. See BootEnv 1. BootEnvs intended for network booting, _must_ include netbootable components.

Booting Ubuntu Without External Access

Default Ubuntu ISOs will attempt to check internet repositories, this can cause problems during provisioning if your environment does not have outbound access.

To workaround this problem, you need to supply a DNS and gateway for your subnet. There are several ways to do this:

  1. Internal to Digital Rebar: Define Options 3 (Gateway) and 6 (DNS) for your machines’ Subnet.

  2. External to Digital Rebar: Adding default_route=true to the boot parameters and include a DNS server on the local subnet in DHCP.

Network Unreachable from Wget / Second Stage Timeout

Throwing a ‘network unreachable’ error from wget when trying to fetch second stage initramfs; however, by the time you get dropped into a root console, eth0 has an IP address and can connect to the server fine. May also see a baremetal PXE boot initial PXE boot works but then it’s getting kicked to a shell before it can download root.squashfs.

Troubleshooting: You can manually grab the file with wget after it bails, so communications are working fine. It just appears it’s not waiting long enough for DHCP and then fails to get the file before it gets an IP.

Note: You can set these changes the global profile so it will apply everywhere. It shouldn’t hurt functioning systems (they will escape the loop early) and might fix this system.

Solution 1: Do you run your switches with Portfast? or spanning tree delays?

You add these to your kernel-console parameter to alter the retry and wait times.
  • provisioner.portdelay=<Number of seconds> - seconds to wait before bring up link

  • provisioner.postportdelay=<Number of seconds> - seconds to wait after bringing up link before dhcp

  • provisioner.wgetretrycount=<Number of retries before failure> - wget of squashfs occurs once a second for 10 times by default.

Solution 2: Is something is really “slower” than sledgehammer expects?

You could try setting provisioner.wgetretrycount=60. kernel-console is a parameter that lets you changing the kernel parameters passed to bootenvs. Sometimes it is used to tweak the kernel console that the kernel is using, but it can be used for other values as well.

Sledgehammer Boots Without IP

It is possible to have sledgehammer boot and hang without an IP. This can happen in environments where DRP is NOT the DHCP server and the subnet has restricted number IPs with more HOSTs than IPs. The ipxe and kernel boot components do DHCP releases as they boot. This releases IPs back to pools. In some DHCP servers, the address is immediately available for consumption. DRP will delay returning the address to the pool for a few seconds to prevent this problem. If this happens as the linux user space of sledgehammer takes over operation, the user space DHCP server may not get an address because the pool is empty. This will make the machine appear as hung or not responsive.

This sometimes resolves itself as IP addresses become available. Additional fixes including rebooting the machine, increasing DHCP scope, or using DRP as DHCP server.

No matching Subnet (MacOS DHCP)

Problem: DHCP will not respond when running DRP from a Mac. Log provides “No Matching Subnet” warning.

Cause: This is likely caused by not configuring the “MAC DARWIN” route correctly as per Quick Start Guide.

Solution: Make sure that the address on the MAC should be outside the range. Then set the ip, add the route, and then (re)start DRP. Make sure all the broadcast routes are deleted first using sudo route delete multiple times.

Kubernetes Dashboard

For Installing KRIB (Kubernetes Rebar Integrated Bootstrapping), the admin.conf files is saved into the krib/cluster-admin-conf profile parameter and can be downloaded after installation is complete. Using this file kubectl --kubeconfig=admin.conf allows autheticated access to the cluster. Please see the KRIB documentation for more details.

For other deployments such as Ansible Kubespray or the Kubeadm deployments of Kubernetes are all maintained by the respective Kubernetes communities. Digital Rebar simply implements a basic version of those configurations. Access to the Kubernetes Dashboard is often changing, and being updated by the community. Please check with the respective communities about how to correctly access the Dashboard.

Some things to note in general:

  • Access is restricted; as well it should

  • You must configure/enable access to the Dashboard

  • Our implmentations usually have a mechanism configured, but this changes over time

Some things that have worked in the past:

  • kubectl proxy - enabled Proxy access to the Kubernetes Master to get to the Dashboard

  • try stopping the Proxy container, and running kubectl proxy --address --accept-hosts '.*'
    • carefully consider this implication - you are enable access from all hosts !!!

  • any other solutions, please let us know… we’ll add them here

Expand Templates from Failed Job

If you have a task/template that has failed, once it’s been run by the Job system, you can collect the rendered template. The rendered template will be in JSON format, so it may be hard to parse.

# set Endpoint and User/Pass appropriately for your environment
export RS_ENDPOINT=""
export RS_KEY="rocketskates:r0cketsk8ts"

# get your Job ID from the failed job, and set accordingly:
curl -k -u $RS_KEY $RS_ENDPOINT/api/v3/jobs/$JOBID/actions > $JOBID.json

# optional - if you have the remarshal tools installed:
json2yaml $JOBID.json > $JOBID.yaml

RBAC - Limit Users to Just Poweron and Poweroff IPMI Controls

The Role Base Access and Controls subsystem allows an operator to construct user account permissions to limit the scope that a user can impact the Digital Rebar Provision system. Below is an example of how to create a Claim that assigns the Role named prod-role that limits to only allow IPMI poweron and poweroff actions. These permissions are applied to the _specific_ set of _scope_ Machines:

drpcli roles update prod-role '"Claims": [{"action": "action:poweron, action:poweroff", "scope": "machines", "specific": "*"}]'

Now simply assign this Role to the given users you wish to limit their permissions on.

unblockRunnable Panic

In some cases, DRP can panic with a message that contains unblockRunnable. This error DRP protecting itself from an unhandled deadlock in the database system. DRP will restart cleanly when restarted. If run under a service watch system (e.g. systemd), the system will restart and continue.

Please gather the log failure and enter a new issue at Digital Rebar Github.

Manager and System Time

The Multi-site Manager system requires all DRP Endpoints that are being managed to have consistent and accurate system clock date and time information. Generally speaking, all Endpoints should have NTP services running, and all RTC clocks set to UTC. The Authentication Tokens and Secrets used for the token system will by design fail if the clocks between two cooperating DRP Endpoint differ more than a few minutes. This is an intentional security measure.

If you encounter any of the following errors on “upstream” DRP Managers, this is often the system clocks being out of sync:

Machine Objects may show the following:

(403) system:
Invalid token: No valid key specified

Plugins may show the following:

Unable to create event stream: Bad Request

or even Golang stack traces in some (eg IPMI plugin):

Panic recovered: invalid WriteHeader code 0
Stack trace:
goroutine 33 [running]:
runtime/debug.Stack(0x991080, 0xc000289510, 0x1)
      /home/travis/.gimme/versions/go1.12.7.linux.amd64/src/runtime/debug/stack.go:24 +0x9d

In addition, Machine objects may show additional failed validation error messages in the Machine details pages.

To correct the problem, install and verify all DRP Endpoints system clocks are in sync with NTP services.

JQ Usage Examples

JQ Raw Mode

Raw JSON output is usefull when passing the results of one jq command in to another for scripted interaction. Be sure to specify “Raw” mode in this case - to prevent colorization and extraneous quotes being wrapped around Key/Value data output.
<some command> | jq -r ...

Filter Out gohai-inventory

The gohai-inventory module is extremely useful for providing Machine classification information for use by other stages or tasks. However, it is very long and causes a lot of content to be output to the console when listing Machine information. Using a simple jq filter, you can delete the gohai-inventory content from the output display.

Note that since the Param name is gohai-inventory, we have to provide some quoting of the Param name, since the dash (-) has special meaning in JSON parsing.
drpcli machines list | jq 'del(.[].Params."gohai-inventory")'
Subsequently, if you are listing an individual Machine, then you can also filter it’s gohai-inventory output as well, with:
drpcli machines show <UUID> | jq 'del(.Params."gohai-inventory")'

List BootEnv Names

Get list of bootenvs available in the installed content, by name:
drpcli bootenvs list | jq '.[].Name'

Reformat Output With Specific Keys

Get list of machines, output “Name:Uuid” pairs from the the JSON output:
drpcli machines list | jq -r '.[] | "\(.Name):\(.Uuid)"'
Output is printed as follows:

You can modify the output separator (colon in this example) to suit your needs.

Extract Specific Key From Output

jq can also pull out only specific Keys from the JSON input. Here is an example to get ISO File name for a bootenv:
drpcli contents show os-discovery | jq '.sections.bootenvs.discovery.OS.IsoFile'

Display Job Logs for Specific Machine

The Job Logs provide a lot of information about the provisioning process of your DRP Endpoint. However, you often only want to see Job Logs for a specific Machine to evaluate provisioning status. To get specific Jobs from the job list - based on Machine UUID, do:
export UUID=`abcd-efgh-ijkl-mnop-qrps"
drpcli jobs list | jq ".[] | select(.Machine==\"$UUID\")"

List Machines with a Given Profile Added to Them

Starting sometime after v3.9.0 the API will allow you to filter Machines that have a given Profile applied to them. If you don’t have this version, you can use jq to list all Machines with a specified Profile by using the following construct:
# set the PROFILE variable to the name you want to match
export PROFILE=foobar
drpcli machines list | jq -r ".[] | select(.Profiles[] == \"$PROFILE\") | \"\(.Name)\""

In this case, we simply list the output of the Machines Name. You can change the final \(.Name) to any valid JSON key(s) on the Machine Object.